1.What is “use case testing”?
In order to identify and execute the functional requirement of an application from start to finish “use case” is used and the techniques used to do this is known as “Use Case Testing.”
2.What is the difference between the STLC (Software Testing Life Cycle) and SDLC (Software Development Life Cycle)?
SDLC deals with development/coding of the software while STLC deales with validation and verification of the software.
3.What is traceability matrix?
The relationship between test cases and requirements is shown with the help of a document. This document is known as a traceability matrix.
4.What is Equivalence partitioning testing?
Equivalence partitioning testing is a software testing technique which divides the application input test data into each partition at least once of equivalent data from which test cases can be derived. By this testing method, it reduces the time required for software testing.
5.What is white box testing and list the types of white box testing?
White box testing technique involves selection of test cases based on an analysis of the internal structure (Code coverage, branches coverage, paths coverage, condition coverage, etc.) of a component or system. It is also known as Code-Based testing or Structural testing. Different types of white box testing are
6.What is black box testing? What are the different black box testing techniques?
Black box testing is the software testing method which is used to test the software without knowing the internal structure of code or program. This testing is usually done to check the functionality of an application. The different black box testing techniques are
ii)Boundary value analysis
7.What is the difference between static and dynamic testing?
Static testing: During Static testing method, the code is not executed, and it is performed using the software documentation.
Dynamic testing: To perform this testing the code is required to be in an executable form.
8.What are verification and validation?
Verification is a process of evaluating software at the development phase. It helps you to decide whether the product of a given application satisfies the specified requirements. Validation is the process of evaluating software at the after the development process and to check whether it meets the customer requirements.
9.What are the different test levels?
There are four test level :-
10.What is Integration testing?
Integration testing is a level of software testing process, where individual units of an application are combined and tested. It is usually performed after unit and functional testing.
11.What Test Plans consists of?
Test design, scope, test strategies, approach are various details that Test plan document consists of:-
i)Test case identifier
iii)Features to be tested
iv)Features not to be tested
v)Test strategy & Test approach
viii)Staffing and training
ix)Risk and Contingencies
12.What is the difference between UAT (User Acceptance Testing) and System testing?
System Testing: System testing is finding defects when the system undergoes testing as a whole; it is also known as end-to-end testing. In such type of testing, the application suffers from beginning till the end.
UAT: User Acceptance Testing (UAT) involves running a product through a series of specific tests which determines whether the product will meet the needs of its users.
13.Mention the difference between Data Driven Testing and Retesting?
Retesting: It is a process of checking bugs that are actioned by the development team to verify that they are fixed.
Data Driven Testing (DDT): In data driven testing process, the application is tested with multiple test data. The application is tested with a different set of values.
14.What are the valuable steps to resolve issues while testing?
Record: Log and handle any problems which have happened
Report: Report the issues to higher level manager
Control: Define the issue management process
15.What is the difference between test scenarios, test cases, and test script?
Test Scenarios: A Test Scenario is any functionality that can be tested. It is also called Test Condition or Test Possibility.
Test Cases: It is a document that contains the steps that have to be executed; it has been planned earlier.
Test Script: It is written in a programming language and it’s a short program used to test part of the functionality of the software system. In other words a written set of steps that should be performed manually.
16.What is Latent defect?
Latent defect: This defect is an existing defect in the system which does not cause any failure as the exact set of conditions has never been met
17.What are the two parameters which can be useful to know the quality of test execution?
To know the quality of test execution, we can use two parameters
i)Defect reject ratio
ii)Defect leakage ratio
18.What is the function of the software testing tool “phantom”?
Phantom is a freeware and is used for windows GUI automation scripting language. It allows us to take control of windows and functions automatically. It can simulate any combination of keystrokes and mouse clicks as well as menus, lists and more.
19.Explain what Test Deliverables is?
Test Deliverables are a set of documents, tools and other components that have to be developed and maintained in support of testing.
There are different test deliverables at every phase of the software development lifecycle:-
iii)After the Testing
20.What is mutation testing?
Mutation testing is a technique to identify if a set of test data or test case is useful by intentionally introducing various code changes (bugs) and retesting with original test data/ cases to determine if the bugs are detected.
21.What all things you should consider before selecting automation tools for the AUT?
vi)Re-usability of automated scripts
vii)Execution across environment
22.How will you conduct Risk Analysis?
For the risk analysis following steps need to be implemented
i)Finding the score of the risk
ii)Making a profile for the risk
iii)Changing the risk properties
iv)Deploy the resources of that test risk
v)Making a database of risk
23.What are the categories of debugging?
Categories for debugging
i)Brute force debugging
v)Fault tree analysis
24.What is fault masking explain with example?
When the presence of one defect hides. At that time the presence of another defect in the system is known as fault masking.
Example: If the “Negative Value” cause a firing of unhandled system exception, the developer will prevent the negative values input. This will resolve the issue and hide the defect of unhandled exception firing.
25.Explain what Test Plan is? What is the information that should be covered in Test Plan?
A test plan can be defined as a document describing the scope, approach, resources, and schedule of testing activities and a test plan should cover the following details.
26. How can you eliminate the product risk in your project?
It helps you to eliminate product risk in your project, and there is a simple yet crucial step that can reduce the product risk in your project.
i)Investigate the specification documents
ii)Have discussions about the project with all stakeholders including the developer
iii)As a real user walk around the website
27.What is the common risk that leads to project failure?
The common risk that leads to a project failure are
i)Not having enough human resource
ii)Testing Environment may not be set up properly
28.On what basis you can arrive at an estimation for your project?
To estimate your project, you have to consider the following points
i)Divide the whole project into the smallest tasks
ii)Allocate each task to team members
iii)Estimate the effort required to complete each task
iv)Validate the estimation.
29. Explain what is testing type and what are the commonly used testing type?
To get an expected test outcome, a standard procedure is followed which is referred to as Testing Type.
Commonly used testing types are
i)Unit Testing: Test the smallest code of an application
ii)API Testing: Testing API created for the application
iii)Integration Testing: Individual software modules are combined and tested
iv)System Testing: Complete testing of the system
v)Install/UnInstall Testing: Testing done from the point of client/customer view
viAgile Testing: Testing through Agile technique
30.While monitoring your project what all things you have to consider?
The things that have to be taken in considerations are
i)Is your project on schedule
ii)Are you over budget
iii)Are you working towards the same career goal
iv)Have you got enough resources
v)Are there any warning signs of impending problems
vi)Is there any pressure from management to complete the project sooner
31.What are the common mistakes which create issues?
i)Matching resources to wrong projects
ii)Test manager lack of skills
iii)Not listening to others
vi)Ignoring the small problems
vii)Not following the process
32.What does a typical test report contain? What are the benefits of test reports?
A test report contains the following things:
The benefits of test reports are:
i)Current status of project and quality of product are informed
ii)If required, stakeholder and customer can take corrective action
iii)A final document helps to decide whether the product is ready for release.
33.What is test management review and why it is important?
Management review is also referred to as Software Quality Assurance or SQA. SQA focusses more on the software process rather than the software work products. It is a set of activities designed to make sure that the project manager follows the standard process. SQA helps test manager to benchmark the project against the set standards.
34.What are the best practices for software quality assurance?
The best practices for an effective SQA implementation is
v)Responsibility by team members
vi)Experienced SQA auditors
35.When is RTM (Requirement Traceability Matrix) prepared?
RTM is prepared before test case designing. Requirements should be traceable from review activities.
36.What is the difference between Test matrix and Traceability matrix?
Test Matrix: Test matrix is used to capture actual quality, effort, the plan, resources and time required to capture all phases of software testing
Traceability Matrix: Mapping between test cases and customer requirements is known as Traceability Matrix
37.In manual testing what are stubs and drivers?
Both stubs and drivers are part of incremental testing. In incremental testing, there are two approaches namely bottom-up and top-down approach. Drivers are used in bottom-up testing and stub is used for a top-down approach. In order to test the main module, the stub is used, which is a dummy code or program.
38. What is the step you would follow once you find the defect?
Once a defect is found you would follow the step
- a) Recreate the defect
- b) Attach the screenshot
- c) Log the defect
39.Explain what is “Test Plan Driven” or “Key Word Driven” method of testing?
This technique uses the actual test case document developed by testers using a spreadsheet containing special “key Words”. The key words control the processing.
40.What is the DFD (Data Flow Diagram)?
When a “flow of data” through an information system is graphically represented, then it is known as Data Flow Diagram. It is also used for the visualization of data processing.
41.Explain what LCSAJ is?
LCSAJ stands for ‘linear code sequence and jump.’ It consists of the following three items
- a) Start of the linear sequence of executable statements
- b) End of the linear sequence
- c) The target line to which control flow is transferred at the end of the linear sequence
42.Explain what N+1 testing is?
The variation of regression testing is represented as N+1. In this technique, the testing is performed in multiple cycles in which errors found in test cycle ‘N’ are resolved and re-tested in test cycle N+1. The cycle is repeated unless there are no errors found.
43.What is Fuzz testing and when it is used?
Fuzz testing is used to detect security loopholes and coding errors in software. In this technique, random data is added to the system in an attempt to crash the system. If vulnerability persists, a tool called fuzz tester is used to determine potential causes. This technique is more useful for bigger projects but only detects a major fault.
44.Mention what the main advantages of statement coverage metric of software testing are?
The benefit of statement coverage metric is that
- a) It does not require processing source code and can be applied directly to object code
- b) Bugs are distributed evenly through the code, due to which percentage of executable statements covered reflects the percentage of faults discovered
45.How to generate test cases for “replace a string” method?
- a) If characters in new string > characters in the previous string. None of the characters should get truncated
- b) If characters in new string< characters in the previous string. Junk characters should not be added
- c) Spaces after and before the string should not be deleted
- d) String should be replaced only for the first occurrence of the string
46.How will you handle a conflict amongst your team members?
i)I will talk individually to each person and note their concerns
ii)I will find a solution to the common problems raised by team members
iii)I will hold a team meeting, reveal the solution and ask people to co-operate
47.Mention what are the categories of defects?
Mainly there are three defect categories: –
Wrong: When a requirement is implemented incorrectly
Missing: It is a variance from the specification, an indication that a specification was not implemented or a requirement of the customer is not met
Extra: A requirement incorporated into the product that was not given by the end customer. It is considered as a defect because it is a variance from the existing requirements
48.Explain how does a test coverage tool work?
The code coverage testing tool runs parallel while performing testing on the actual product. The code coverage tool monitors the executed statements of the source code. When the final testing is done, we get a complete report of the pending statements and also get the coverage percentage.
49.Mention what the difference between a “defect” and a “failure” in software testing is?
In simple terms when a defect reaches the end customer, it is called a failure while the defect is identified internally and resolved; then it is referred to as a defect.
50.Explain how to test documents in a project that span across the software development lifecycle?
The project span across the software development lifecycle in the following manner
i)Central/Project test plan: It is the main test plan that outlines the complete test strategy of the project. This plan is used till the end of the software development lifecycle
ii)Acceptance test plan: This document begins during the requirement phase and is completed at the final delivery
iii)System test plan: This plan starts during the design plan and proceeds until the end of the project
iv)Integration and Unit test plan: Both these test plans start during the execution phase and last until the final delivery