Top MNC Interview Questions and Answers – Testing

1. Explain which test cases are written first black boxes or white boxes?

Black box test cases are written first as to write black box test cases; it requires project plan and requirement document all these documents are easily available at the beginning of the project. While writing white box test cases requires more architectural understanding and is not available at the start of the project.

2. Explain what the difference between latent and masked defects is?

Latent defect: A latent defect is an existing defect that has not caused a failure because the sets of conditions were never met

Masked defect: It is an existing defect that has not caused a failure because another defect has prevented that part of the code from being executed

3.Mention what bottom-up testing is?

Bottom-up testing is an approach to integration testing, where the lowest level components are tested first, then used to facilitate the testing of higher level components. The process is repeated until the component at the top of the hierarchy is tested.

4.Mention what the different types of test coverage techniques are?

Different types of test coverage techniques include


i)Statement Coverage: It verifies that each line of source code has been executed and tested

ii)Decision Coverage: It ensures that every decision in the source code is executed and tested

iii)Path Coverage: It ensures that every possible route through a given part of the code is executed and tested

5. Mention what the meaning of breath testing is?

Breath testing is a test suite that exercises the full functionality of a product but does not test features in detail

6. Explain what the meaning of Code Walk Through is?

Code Walk Through is the informal analysis of the program source code to find defects and verify coding techniques

7. Mention what the basic components of defect report format are?

The essential components of defect report format include

i)Project Name

ii)Module Name

iii)Defect detected on

iv)Defect detected by

v)Defect ID and Name

vi)Snapshot of the defect

vii)Priority and Severity status

viii)Defect resolved by

ix)Defect resolved on

8. Mention what the purpose behind doing end-to-end testing is?

End-to-end testing is done after functional testing. The purpose behind doing end-to-end testing is that

i)To validate the software requirements and integration with external interfaces

ii)Testing application in real-world environment scenario

iii)Testing of interaction between application and database

9.Explain what it means by test harness?

A test harness is configuring a set of tools and test data to test an application in various conditions, and it involves monitoring the output with expected output for correctness.

10.Explain in a testing project what testing activities would you automate?

In testing project testing activities, you would automate are

i)Tests that need to be run for every build of the application

ii)Tests that use multiple data for the same set of actions

iii)Identical tests that need to be executed using different browsers

iv)Mission critical pages

v)A transaction with pages that do not change in a short time

11.What is the main benefit of designing tests early in the life cycle?

It helps prevent defects from being introduced into the code.

12.What is risk-based testing?

Risk-based Testing is the term used for an approach to creating a Test Strategy that is based on prioritizing tests by risk. The basis of the approach is a detailed risk analysis and prioritizing of risks by risk level. Tests to address each risk are then specified, starting with the highest risk first.

13.What is the KEY difference between preventative and reactive approaches to testing?

Preventative tests are designed early; reactive tests are designed after the software has been produced.

14.What is the purpose of exit criteria?

The purpose of exit criteria is to define when a test level is completed.

15.What determines the level of risk?

The likelihood of an adverse event and the impact of the event determine the level of risk.

16.When is used Decision table testing?

Decision table testing is used for testing systems for which the specification takes the form of rules or cause-effect combinations. In a decision table, the inputs are listed in a column, with the outputs in the same column but below the inputs. The remainder of the table explores combinations of inputs to define the outputs produced.

17.Why we use decision tables?

The techniques of equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis are often applied to specific situations or inputs. However, if different combinations of inputs result in different actions being taken, this can be more difficult to show using equivalence partitioning and boundary value analysis, which tend to be more focused on the user interface. The other two specification-based techniques, decision tables, and state transition testing are more focused on business logic or business rules. A decision table is a good way to deal with combinations of things (e.g., inputs). This technique is sometimes also referred to as a cause-effect’ table. The reason for this is that there is an associated logic diagramming technique called cause-effect graphing’ which was sometimes used to help derive the decision table.

18.What is the main objective when reviewing a software deliverable?

To identify defects in any software work product.

19. What is component testing?

Component testing, also known as unit, module, and program testing, searches for defects in and verifies the functioning of software (e.g., modules, programs, objects, classes, etc.) that are separately testable. Component testing may be done in isolation from the rest of the system depending on the context of the development life cycle and the system. Most often stubs and drivers are used to replace the missing software and simulate the interface between the software components simply. A stub is called from the software component to be tested; a driver calls a component to be tested.

20. What is functional system testing?

Testing the end to end functionality of the system as a whole is defined as a functional system testing.

21.What are the benefits of Independent Testing?

Independent testers are unbiased and identify different defects at the same time.

22.In a REACTIVE approach to testing when would you expect the bulk of the test design work to be begun?

The bulk of the test design work begun after the software or system has been produced.

23.What are the different Methodologies in Agile Development Model?

There are currently seven different agile methodologies that I am aware of:

i)Extreme Programming (XP)


iii)Lean Software Development

iv)Feature-Driven Development

v)Agile Unified Process


vii)Dynamic Systems Development Model (DSDM)

24.Which activity in the fundamental test process includes evaluation of the testability of the requirements and system?

A ‘Test Analysis’ and ‘Design’ includes evaluation of the testability of the requirements and system.

25.What is typically the MOST important reason to use risk to drive testing efforts?

Because testing everything is not feasible.

26.What is random/monkey testing? When is it used?

Random testing is often known as monkey testing. In such type of testing data is generated randomly often using a tool or automated mechanism. With this randomly generated input, the system is tested, and results are analyzed accordingly. These testing are less reliable; hence it is normally used by the beginners and to see whether the system will hold up under adverse effects.

27.Which of the following are valid objectives for incident reports?

i)Provide developers and other parties with feedback about the problem to enable identification, isolation, and correction as necessary.

ii)Provide ideas for test process improvement.

iii)Provide a vehicle for assessing tester competence.

iv)Provide testers with a means of tracking the quality of the system under test.

28.Consider the following techniques. Which are static and which are dynamic techniques?

i)Equivalence Partitioning.

ii)Use Case Testing.

iii)Data Flow Analysis.

iv)Exploratory Testing.

v)Decision Testing.


Data Flow Analysis and Inspections are static; Equivalence Partitioning, Use Case Testing, Exploratory Testing and Decision Testing are dynamic.

29.Why are static testing and dynamic testing described as complementary?

Because they share the aim of identifying defects but differ in the types of defect they find.

30.What are the phases of a formal review?

In contrast to informal reviews, formal reviews follow a formal process. A typical formal review process consists of six main steps:




iv)Review meeting



31.What is the role of moderator in the review process?

The moderator (or review leader) leads the review process. He or she determines, in co-operation with the author, the type of review, approach and the composition of the review team. The moderator performs the entry check and the follow-up on the rework, in order to control the quality of the input and output of the review process. The moderator also schedules the meeting, disseminates documents before the meeting, coaches other team members, paces the meeting, leads possible discussions and stores the data that is collected.

32.What is an equivalence partition (also known as an equivalence class)?

An input or output ranges of values such that only one value in the range becomes a test case.

33.When should configuration management procedures be implemented?

During test planning.

34.A Type of Functional Testing, which investigates the functions relating to the detection of threats, such as virus from malicious outsiders?

Security Testing

35.Testing wherein we subject the target of the test, to varying workloads to measure and evaluate the performance behaviors and the ability of the target and the test to continue to function properly under these different workloads?

Load Testing

36.Testing activity which is performed to expose defects in the interfaces and in the interaction between integrated components is?

Integration Level Testing

37.What are the Structure-based (white-box) testing techniques?

Structure-based testing techniques (which are also dynamic rather than static) use the internal structure of the software to derive test cases. They are commonly called ‘white-box’ or ‘glass-box’ techniques (implying you can see into the system) since they require knowledge of how the software is implemented, that is, how it works. For example, a structural technique may be concerned with exercising loops in the software. Different test cases may be derived to exercise the loop once, twice, and many times. This may be done regardless of the functionality of the software.

38.When should “Regression Testing” be performed?

After the software has changed or when the environment has changed Regression testing should be performed.

39. What is negative and positive testing?
A negative test is when you put in an invalid input and receives errors. While positive testing is when you put in a valid input and expect some action to be completed in accordance with the specification.

40. What is the purpose of a test completion criterion?

The purpose of test completion criterion is to determine when to stop testing

41. What can static analysis NOT find?

For example memory leaks.

42. What is the difference between re-testing and regression testing?

Re-testing ensures the original fault has been removed; regression testing looks for unexpected side effects.

43.What are the Experience-based testing techniques?

In experience-based techniques, people’s knowledge, skills, and background are a prime contributor to the test conditions and test cases. The experience of both technical and business people is important, as they bring different perspectives to the test analysis and design process. Due to previous experience with similar systems, they may have insights into what could go wrong, which is very useful for testing.

44.What type of review requires formal entry and exit criteria, including metrics?


45.Could reviews or inspections be considered part of testing?

Yes, because both help detects faults and improves quality.

46.To test a function, what has to write a programmer, which calls the function to be tested and pass test data.


47. What is the one Key reason why developers have difficulty testing their own work?

Lack of Objectivity

48. How much testing is enough?

The answer depends on the risk for your industry, contract and special requirements.

49. When should testing be stopped?

It depends on the risks for the system being tested. There are some criteria based on which you can stop testing.

i)Deadlines (Testing, Release)

ii)Test budget has been depleted

iii)Bug rate fall below a certain level

iv)Test cases completed with certain percentage passed

v)Alpha or beta periods for testing ends

vi)Coverage of code, functionality or requirements are met to a specified point

50.Which of the following is the primary purpose of the integration strategy for integration testing in the small?

The primary purpose of the integration strategy is to specify which modules to combine when and how many at once.