31.Explain the life cycle of a Servlet
On every client’s request, the Servlet Engine loads the servlets and invokes its init methods, in order for the servlet to be initialized. Then, the Servlet object handles all subsequent requests coming from that client, by invoking the service method for each request separately. Finally, the servlet is removed by calling the server’s destroy method.
32.What is the purpose of using RMISecurityManager in RMI ?
RMISecurityManager provides a security manager that can be used by RMI applications, which use downloaded code. The class loader of RMI will not download any classes from remote locations, if the security manager has not been set.
33.What is the role of the java.rmi.Naming Class ?
The java.rmi.Naming class provides methods for storing and obtaining references to remote objects in the remote object registry. Each method of the Naming class takes as one of its arguments a name that is a String in URL format.
34.What advantage do Java’s layout managers provide over traditional windowing systems ?
Java uses layout managers to lay out components in a consistent manner, across all windowing platforms. Since layout managers aren’t tied to absolute sizing and positioning, they are able to accomodate platform-specific differences among windowing systems.
35.What is the applet security manager, and what does it provide ?
The applet security manager is a mechanism to impose restrictions on Java applets. A browser may only have one security manager. The security manager is established at startup, and it cannot thereafter be replaced, overloaded, overridden, or extended.
36.What are untrusted applets ?
Untrusted applets are those Java applets that cannot access or execute local system files. By default, all downloaded applets are considered as untrusted.
37.What is the purpose of garbage collection in Java, and when is it used ?
The purpose of garbage collection is to identify and discard those objects that are no longer needed by the application, in order for the resources to be reclaimed and reused.
38.What is the tradeoff between using an unordered array versus an ordered array ?
The major advantage of an ordered array is that the search times have time complexity of O(log n), compared to that of an unordered array, which is O (n). The disadvantage of an ordered array is that the insertion operation has a time complexity of O(n), because the elements with higher values must be moved to make room for the new element. Instead, the insertion operation for an unordered array takes constant time of O(1).
39.What is the importance of hashCode() and equals() methods ?
In Java, a HashMap uses the hashCode and equals methods to determine the index of the key-value pair and to detect duplicates. More specifically, the hashCode method is used in order to determine where the specified key will be stored. Since different keys may produce the same hash value, the equals method is used, in order to determine whether the specified key actually exists in the collection or not. Therefore, the implementation of both methods is crucial to the accuracy and efficiency of the HashMap.
40.What is an Iterator ?
The Iterator interface provides a number of methods that are able to iterate over any Collection. Each Java Collection contains the iterator method that returns an Iterator instance. Iterators are capable of removing elements from the underlying collection during the iteration.