**41. What is the difference between rnorm and runif functions ?**

rnorm function generates “n” normal random numbers based on the mean and standard deviation arguments passed to the function.

__Syntax of rnorm function __

rnorm(n, mean = , sd = )

runif function generates “n” unform random numbers in the interval of minimum and maximum values passed to the function.

__Syntax of runif function __

runif(n, min = , max = )

**42. What will be the output on executing the following R programming code**

mat<-matrix(rep(c(TRUE,FALSE),8),nrow=4)

sum(mat)

8

**43. What is power analysis ?**

Power analysis is the process used to determine the effect of a given sample size and is generally used for experimental design. Pwr package in R is used for power analysis.

**44. What are connections In R?**

Functions to Manipulate Connections (Files, URLs, …). Functions to create, open and close connections.

**For example:** “generalized files”, such as compressed files, URLs, pipes, etc.

**Keywords: **file, connection

**45. How many methods are there to save graphs?**

There are three methods to save graphs respectively:

- A General method
- another approach
- Local Sessions with Windows or OS X

**46. What is the byte in R?**

A byte is a data equal to either seven or eight bits depending if it needs error correction (parity)

**47. What is the usage of the lattice package in R?**

Lattice package helps enhance base R graphics by providing better defaults and helps easily display multi-variate relationships.

**48. How To Create New Variable In R Programming?**

** **For creating new variable assignment operator ‘<-’ is used For e.g. mydata$sum <- mydata$x1 + mydata$x2.

**49. Compare R with other technologies.**

Data handling Capabilities – Good data handling capabilities and options for parallel computation.

Availability / Cost – R is an open source and we can use it anywhere.

Advancement in Tool – if you are working on the latest technologies, R gets latest features.

Ease of Learning – R has a learning curve. R is a low-level programming language. As a result, simple procedures can take long codes.

Job Scenario – It is a better option for start-ups and companies looking for cost efficiency.

Graphical capabilities – R is having the most advanced graphical capabilities. Hence, it provides us with advanced graphical capabilities.

Customer Service support and community – R is the biggest online growing community.

**50. What are R topical programming and statistical relevance?**

__Statistical__

- R is free, open source software.
- R is available from free software Foundation.

__Programming__

- Data inputs such as data type, importing data, keyboard typing.
- Data Management such as data variables, operators.