31. What is Self-Join?
Self-join is set to be query used to compare to itself. This is used to compare values in a column with other values in the same column in the same table. ALIAS ES can be used for the same table comparison.
32. What is Cross-Join?
Cross join defines as Cartesian product where number of rows in the first table multiplied by number of rows in the second table. If suppose, WHERE clause is used in cross join then the query will work like an INNER JOIN.
33. What is user defined functions?
User defined functions are the functions written to use that logic whenever required. It is not necessary to write the same logic several times. Instead, function can be called or executed whenever needed.
34. What are all types of user defined functions?
Three types of user defined functions are.
- Scalar Functions.
- Inline Table valued functions.
- Multi statement valued functions.
Scalar returns unit, variant defined the return clause. Other two types return table as a return.
35. What is collation?
Collation is defined as set of rules that determine how character data can be sorted and compared. This can be used to compare A and, other language characters and also depends on the width of the characters.
ASCII value can be used to compare these character data.
36. What are all different types of collation sensitivity?
Following are different types of collation sensitivity -.
- Case Sensitivity – A and a and B and b.
- Accent Sensitivity.
- Kana Sensitivity – Japanese Kana characters.
- Width Sensitivity – Single byte character and double byte character.
37. Advantages and Disadvantages of Stored Procedure?
Stored procedure can be used as a modular programming – means create once, store and call for several times whenever required. This supports faster execution instead of executing multiple queries. This reduces network traffic and provides better security to the data.
Disadvantage is that it can be executed only in the Database and utilizes more memory in the database server.
38. What is Online Transaction Processing (OLTP)?
Online Transaction Processing (OLTP) manages transaction based applications which can be used for data entry, data retrieval and data processing. OLTP makes data management simple and efficient. Unlike OLAP systems goal of OLTP systems is serving real-time transactions.
Example – Bank Transactions on a daily basis.
39. What is CLAUSE?
SQL clause is defined to limit the result set by providing condition to the query. This usually filters some rows from the whole set of records.
Example – Query that has WHERE condition
Query that has HAVING condition.
40. What is recursive stored procedure?
A stored procedure which calls by itself until it reaches some boundary condition. This recursive function or procedure helps programmers to use the same set of code any number of times.